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Lake Bardawil and Sinai Desert Restoration Project

        3.2. Coastal ecosystems in collapse                           3.3. Land ecosystems in collapse                              3.3. Future pressures and risks

        4,500 fishermen are depending on the natural resources of Lake  Historical overgrazing and depletion of water has led to increased  Climate change, combined with a fast growing population of
        Bardawil, but there is an overall decline of fish catch in tonnage  desertification. The local population suffers from heat waves, sand  Egypt, will accelerate the collapse of the ecosystems. Natural
        and quality.                                                  storms and flash floods.                                      resources will further decrease, leading to food and water
                                                                                                                                    insecurity. All combined leading to degrading livelihood, less
                                                                                                                                    future perspective and potential instability in the region.

        Decreasing tidal influence from the Mediterranean Sea has led to
        an increase of salinity levels and decreasing depth in the lake,
        combined with unsustainable fishing practices the fish population
        further declines.
                                                                      An extensive North Sinai
        Lake     History   Today                                      floristic composition and
        Bardawil                                                      structure survey performed
                                                                      in 2005 and 2006 revealed                                     “Our changing climate also comes with huge potential security impacts as
                                                                                                                                    the increasing droughts and floodings affect the food- and water security
                                                                      that the flora and fauna has
        Surface  680 km²   580 km²                                    dramatically changed in the                                   of complete regions in the world. This has a disrupting effect on societies,
                                                                                                                                    especially in fragile regions, resulting in internal friction, migration flows
                                                                      past 40-50 years, in which                                    and new breeding grounds for extremism. New concepts are needed to
                                                                      more than 60% of species                                      turn that tide. The Bardawill & Sinai Initiatives can help restore the
        Water    20 – 40 m  1 – 2 m                                   recorded in previous                                          relationship between society and nature, and counter the disruptive
        Depth                                                         surveys were no longer                                        security effects of our changing climate.”
                                                                      found (Kamel et al. 2008)
        Salinity  1035     1060                                                                                                     Tom Middendorp
                 kg/m³     kg/m³                                                                                                    Chairman of the International Military Council
                                                                                                                                    on Climate and Security

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